Blood is a necessary component of human life; it is a platform for which nutrients and waste are transported for organ functionality. In order to understand the hemic and lymphatic systems in the human body, it is important to understand the composition and function of blood and corresponding blood systems. It is with this knowledge and foundation that various conditions and diseases relating to blood can be thoroughly explored.
There are many parts to blood, including composition that includes water, proteins, minerals, nutrients, platelets, and carbon dioxide. Blood cells can also be divided into three types: white blood cells that defend the immune system from infectious disease; red blood cells that primarily deliver oxygen through the rest of the body; and platelets that help form clots. Blood cells travel throughout the body through blood vessels, at the command of the heart. Any disease or condition that disrupts, interferes, or challenges this system should be considered as a serious medical matter.
To provide you with an abundant directory on hemic and lymphatic diseases, use the following resource to help guide your studies and interests on this all-important system.
General Blood Information
The following resource links work as a general introduction to blood. Read through guides that discuss morphology, or browse slides that show samples of typical blood. It is also possible to see how certain diseases affect blood. Many topics are covered including: average blood count, blood composition, compatibility, transfusions, and common blood tests.
- Blood Book – Take advantage of the large amount of blood information available here. You can also find a large number of blood related resources including how to donate blood and plasma.
- Normal Blood- This website provided by the Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Service clearly explains the typical composition of human blood and bone marrow. Also available are some helpful biological statistics here.
- Puget Sound Blood Center - Examine this hematology course presented to you online through the Puget Sound Blood Center. Contents include cellular composition, general blood information and finally how blood banking works.
- Erythrocyte – Encyclopedic definition of erythrocyte (red blood cells). You can also find relevant recent research about red blood cells as well as links to other definitions.
- Leukocyte - Encyclopedic definition of leukocyte (white blood cells). This entry includes a number of discipline specific definitions, and relevant images from Google Image Search.
- Net Biochem - This website contains information on Heme and iron in the blood. Sections include heme synthesis, heme Degradation, iron metabolism and iron absorption.
- Iron Disorders Institute - This website is entirely dedicated to iron disorders of the blood. Here you can find a great amount of information for patients, medical professionals, and peruse their online iron library.
- Blood Groups, Blood Typing and Blood Transfusions - This article covers basic information related to the blood. Also present is a table of blood groups, their antigens, and antibodies, as well as compatible blood types for blood donation and reception.
- AABB- The AABB is an organization dedicated to advancing the standards and practice of transfusion medicine as well as cellular therapies. The ‘Blood and Cellular Therapies Information’ section is especially helpful.
- Medicine Net - Read general information about hemapheresis including a definition, and how it is performed. You can also read about what apheresis can treat as well as possible complications.
Comprised of physiology, pathology, and clinical laboratory work, hematology is primarily dedicated to studying blood, and blood forming organisms and diseases. Hematology explores the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of blood diseases. You can find information on guidelines that health care providers and professionals follow, learn about current events in hematology, or gain a better understanding of common issues faced through the use of case studies.
- Atlas of Hematology- A resource made available through a collaboration of Japanese medical institutions. Here you can learn about normal peripheral blood, blood variations, bone marrow, and a number of disorders including Lymphoma, Leukemia and anemia.
- Hematology Online Book- A book made available for online viewing, this text includes an overview of Hematology as well as an archive. This resource is hosted by the American Society of Hematology.
- Hematology and the Eyes - Test your Hematologic knowledge through this website that provides slides of common blood disorders. You can also find answers to the questions asked.
- Hematologic Case Studies- Read through 36 real case studies in Hematography. All cases presented are factual, and follow medical practice as per typical approaches between October 1997 and September 2000.
- Diagnostic Criteria and Laboratory Investigation of Haematological Malignancies - Here you can read about the 50 subtypes of hematologic malignancy, including the presence of certain symptoms necessary for classification. Primarily, this resource provides standard operating procedures for each hematologic disorder.
Anemia is identified by a decreased presence of red blood cells in the body. Because red blood cells carry oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, this lowered count can physically manifest with a paler complexion in its victims.
- What is anemia?- The Mayo Clinic provides this helpful guide that defines anemia, and lists symptoms, causes, and risk factors. You can also find more in-depth information including tests and diagnosis.
- Glossary and Atlas of Blood Film Descriptors - This glossary contains basic terminology that describes blood film. Images that illustrate these ideas are also available.
- Epidemiology of Iron Deficiency- An online course that details anemia and other iron deficiency problems. Find a number of useful definitions, tables, statistics, and links to major studies in the area.
- Anemia (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000560.htm ) Medline Plus provides this information on anemia including causes, symtpoms, and common tests. Also of interest are the images provided that display common and anemic blood samples.
- Virology Down Under- This website provides a basic description of Anemia, how to successfully utilize the hematology profile, and further information on validation. Aimed at those in the health industry, this website is a helpful reference for understanding the steps taken in identifying the disorder.
Aplastic anemia contains elements form both aplasia and anemia, and is a condition in which the bone marrow does not produce enough new replenishing blood cell types.
- The Mayo Clinic – The Mayo Clinic provides this guide to aplastic anemia. Here you can find a definition, common symptoms, causes and relevant treatments.
- Johns Hopkins Medicine – Another source of information on aplastic anemia, this website provides an overview of the condition, explains risk factors, describes symptoms, and details available treatments.
Blood Coagulation Disorders
These disorders involve irregular blood functions including an inability to coagulate, or excessive coagulation. Many of these disorders are the result of genetics, and physiologic problems. In this section you will find links to conditions such as hemophilia, and thrombophilia. This section is also helpful for learning about the process of hemostasis.
- Coagulation Disorders- Here you can find lecture notes on some major coagulation disorders. The information provided is condensed and well organized.
- Thrombophilia Awareness Project - This website is dedicated to providing information regarding thrombophilic conditions. These genetic blood disorders result in an increased tendency of the blood to clot which may lead to life threatening complications.
A necessary component of the hemostatic system, platelets are essential in ensuring typical blood flow.
- Platelet Disorder Support Association – This association is devoting to providing assistance to those with platelet disorders such as Purpura. The community section provides discussion groups, local support groups, and a calendar of events.
- Medline Plus – A general overview of platelet disorders including diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment. You can also find a number of helpful links to other related websites.
- Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura- The Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford provides this online guide that explains ITP. This website provides information including who is affected , common symptoms, diagnosis, and available treatments.
- What are Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis? - This article hosted by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute provides an overview of Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, and prevention. You can also find information regarding clinical trials being done on the subject.
These syndromes are a diverse assortment of conditions that involve insufficient production of myeloid blood cells. People who suffer from these conditions typically require many blood transfusions, and may also develop anemia. Bone marrow also plays an integral role in the development of these conditions. This section provides access to descriptions of myelodysplastic syndromes as well as options for treatment.
- The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation- Major organization dedicated to advancing knowledge of the subject of Myelodysplastic syndromes in order to provide treatment and prevent development. This website provides helpful educational information regarding common syndromes, and articles related to treating Myelodysplastic syndromes.
- Myelodysplasia- This detailed paper explains MDS, who can get it, and what the causes are. Additionally, you can find summaries of current treatment options, and evaluations.
- Leukemia Web – Learn more about blood cancer and Leukemia at this website. Also discussed are available prescription drugs and their influence of MDS.
A complex network of tissues and organs, the lymphatic system consists primarily of lymph vessels, nodes and lymph. The lymphatic system is responsible for protecting against germs, infection, and bacteria. Improper functioning can result in a number of conditions including swelling and infection.
- Lymphatic Diseases- Medline Plus provides this overview of lymphatic diseases. There are many links to leading organizations, and more detailed descriptions of specific conditions.
- Lymphedema- Here you can find an overview of Lymphedema including etiology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Also available here is access to related issues and operational guides.
- Lymphatic Filariasis – The Center for Disease Control and Prevention hosts this website that explains lymphatic filariasis and possible symptoms. Additionally, you can learn about the diagnosis, and treatment of the disorder, or review resources available to health professionals.
- Lymphatic Glossary- A detailed glossary categorized by specific diseases. Learn the definitions of many words related to these diseases, as well as additional notes on each disease.
- Sarcoidosis Signs and Symptoms - A more detailed list of symptoms caused by Sarcoidosis. This list includes respiratory, opthalmological, and dermatological symptoms.
A functionally complex organ, the spleen plays a major role in the maintenance of blood. Responsible for processing the blood in the body, any injury to the spleen is significant, and could be potentially life-threatening. Many blood diseases may result in splenic problems, including an enlarged spleen.
- Enlarged Spleen- The Merck Manuals article details symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of an enlarged spleen. You can also find a list of causes and further reading on the topic.
- Wandering Spleen- Here you can find a description of the condition known as wandering spleen. Some general discussion including cause of the disorder is included.
- Focal Splenic Disease – This study done on Focal splenic disease discusses the use of ultrasound and tomography in its detection. The study further discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
- Hypersplenism – An overview of the condition known as hypersplenism. This website includes causes and symptom information.
- Ruptured Spleen- The Mayo Clinic provides this guide that explains what a ruptured spleen is, common symptoms, and causes. You can also find more in-depth discussion of treatment and drugs available.